Rabbinic Thesis: Jewish Ethics and Mysticism

As part of my master’s in rabbinic studies, I wrote a thesis titled “Internal Growth, Human Relationships, and Reaching Towards God: The Concurrent Development of Ethics and Mysticism in Early Modern Jewish Texts.” I analyzed Tomer Devorah, Mesillat Yesharim, and Nefesh HaChayim. Here is a vide of my thesis presentation, which basically covers the introduction to my thesis.

If you would like to read a copy of my thesis, please email me. Here are links to some of the books I read.

The above list is not complete. Many of my important sources came from articles available on Academia. My favorite essay is the one that opened up the world of Talmud as literature and the beauty of Jewish mysticism for me: “Four Entered Pardes Revisted,” from the Harvard Theological Review by Alon Goshen-Gottstein.

Seventeen Days of the Omer, Autonomy in the Balance

Today is seventeen days, which is two weeks and three days of the Omer 5782. תפארת שבתפארת. Beauty within Beauty. We are also witnessing the beginning of the end of bodily autonomy in the United States. Human rights are going to be stripped from people by the United States Supreme Court.

This year, I challenged myself to create seven meditations on a single side of each sefirot, even though they all contain a constellation of ideas. So for Tiferet, I solely wanted to speak about Beauty. I was going to ignore Compassion, which has a womb at the root of the word. And I wanted to ignore my other favorite aspece of this sefirah, Truth, which is so deeply embedded in how I approach the world. Perhaps I could knock out a few paragraphs on the essence of Beauty in the morning when the exhaustion has dissipated a bit?

Abortion is a Human Right. Reproductive Healthcare is Healthcare.

Roe v Wade was decided on the basis of the right to privacy. This Twitter thread provides an overview of the rulings that could be overturned based on throwing out this settled precedent.

Most critically, I want to say: my bodily autonomy is not up for debate. I am not moving from the fact that whatever healthcare a child-bearing person decides to make, that is a decision they choose alone. Every single person has the right to make their healthcare decisions for themselves.

I could tell you my own experiences with abortion, but I shouldn’t have to do that to convince someone that my body is my own business and child-bearing people are human beings who should not be treated as incapable of making their own healthcare decisions.

Religious Liberty is Secondary

To be clear: Jewish law is not made on the basis of poetry. The Psalter is not the origin of our law code. Within our Bible, it is *very* clear that life is always more important than potential life.

Also, since “conservatives” are so enamored with the idea of “original intent,” let’s remember that the concept of the soul did not exist when the Torah or the Psalms were written. Reading soul-language into the Bible is a retroactive continuity decision after Jews came in contact with Pagan Greeks and decided to appropriate the soul-concept into their civilization.

USA Today wrote a clear overview of the Jewish understanding that life does not begin at conception.

I oppose placing Christian theology above individual bodily autonomy. I oppose government deciding what healthcare human beings can choose to receive. And yes, I completely agree with the majority of rabbis throughout the centuries who have prioritized every woman’s life above the potential life that she may be carrying in her body. A woman can choose whatever medical procedure or medication is needed to protect her mental and physical health.

On the Beauty Front: A Magnificent Art Exhibit is Closing

Circling back to Tiferet ShebeTiferet, the Beauty within Beauty of the 17th day of the Omer.

Jenny Yurshansky‘s incredible exhibit is up for the next ten days at the American Jewish University. As explained in the Los Angeles Times review of Yurshansky’s solo exhibit, it is a timely piece that looks at what it means to be a refugee. She has one final artist talk scheduled for Mother’s Day and you don’t want to miss it if you’re in the LA area.

I have the distinct honor of knowing Ms. Yurshansky, as we went to junior high school together.

Previously on the 17th day of the Omer

Compassion and the Self-Reflective Act of Prayer, 5781 / 2021.

Explore the depths and limits of truth, 5780 / 2020.

Synthesizing grace and judgment, 5779 / 2019.

Sinking into beautiful truth, 5778 / 2018.

Reaching towards pure compassion, 5777 / 2017.


Image by Blandine Joannic via Pixabay.

Beautiful Strength, 10 Days Omer 5782

Today is ten days, which is one week and three days of the Omer in the year 5782. תפארת שבגבורה , Tiferet ShebeGevurah Beautiful Strength.

God’s Strength in Heaven

I often imagine HaShem as The Rock when meditating into Their Strength. Benji Elson, in Dance of the Omer, reminds us of another image: the waters above and the waters below, that flow through the Jewish imagination. He tells us that the word for heaven, shamayim, contains both fire and water, because the fire of the sun and the waters of rain are contained within it.

Do sunsets inspire you? Or do they remind you how much pollution is in the air, causing most of the beauty we see in city sunsets?

I am not a person who spends much time in nature. Yet, it is landscape photography that sinks me into the depths beyond the mundane. Overflowing Source of Blessing, thank you El Shaddai, for this gift.

El Shaddai: God of Breasts

Our Protector, the one whose blessing we seek on our doorposts with mezuzot, is El Shaddai, God of Breasts. Rabbi Amichai Lau-Lavie, creator of Lab/Shul, recently posted about El Shaddai on Instagram.

This reminds me of my meditation into El Shaddai during the Omer in 2019 / 5789.

The Divine Mother yearns for us to understand Her. To recognize that She is not distinct from the Divine Father, though She appears separately and has been hidden for millennia. By accepting multiple gender expressions for the Divine, we understand ourselves more. We reconnect with the rejected aspects within. And we help to heal the brokenness of the world.

Do Not Fear Strength

Balanced, Harmonious Strength. The ability to protect the innocent, care for those in need, and lead people towards the future.

The Strength within each of us can see us through whatever happens. I cannot tell you why unspeakable things happen every single day. Evil exists. Bad choices are part of free will.

The Beautiful Strength to endure whatever happens emanates from HaShem.

May El Shaddai watch over you. May we together create the peaceful world we wish to live in.

The Book Chatting With Me This Year

Spiral of 10 Days of the Omer

Compassionate Discipline: Returning to The Way, Ascending Higher. 5781 / 2021.

Resting in the truth of discipline, 5780 / 2020.

Truthful discipline: Halacha, the Jewish Way, 5779 / 2019.

Inner strength and deep will, 5778 / 2018.

Compassion in discipline, 5777 / 2017.


Image by Antony Trivet via Pixabay.

Societal betrayal, androcentrism, and pandemic parenting

In the New York Times, psychiatrist Pooja Lakshmin describes the societal betrayal of mothers during this pandemic. This concept resonates deeply with me. It is the underlying issue behind my four month absence from blogging.

Societal betrayal of mothers

This societal betrayal of the communal need to support raising children led me to reflect more intentionally on Judaism. It left me adrift in the breadth of androcentrism, throughout the history of written Jewish sources. The relentless focus on male lives, separate from familial obligation, is oppressive. My faith shattered and my soul could not imagine completing my intensive jaunt through psalm 25. Severed from the psalm and all forms of piety, I could not write.

Moving beyond biblical androcentrism

My way back to some semblance of wholeness came through my final presentation for a Tanakh course last semester. I realized I am not betraying myself by engaging with the Bible. Those narratives, composed by men, offering deepest insight into men’s lives. Simultaneously, the civilization grounded in the Jewish Bible and worldview transforms me.

Many sources of wisdom have problematic components, whether it be they were outspoken Jew haters, racist slave owners, or misogynists. Do we chuck all of it because they aren’t people we’d want to have dinner with?

Using imperfect sources

Can we separate the true wisdom from the husks? Is it possible to transform received wisdom with our deeper insight into the breadth of human potential?

My goal is to place wisdom into digestible formats for human growth towards the best versions of ourselves.

Towards that end, my next post will conclude my meditations on psalm 25. Then, I’ll try to go back to studying the psalter and writing shorter posts on each psalm along the way. L’Chaim!


Image by Alexas Fotos via Pixabay

V’Etchanan: I pleaded with HaShem

Shabbat Nachamu, the Shabbat of Consolation, just ended. Last week’s Torah portion began with the word “v’etchanan,” I pleaded.

Image by Grae Dickason from Pixabay

Our sages say that Moses was praying for the ability to pray. The original fore-prayer. The term fore-prayer was coined by Reb Zalman Shachter-Shalomi to describe the need to prepare oneself for prayer.

The ultimate version of this is the prayer that is not a prayer, a line from Psalm 51: “Adonai, s’faitay tiftach, ufi yagid t’hilatecha;” traditionally translated as “O Lord, open my lips, so that my mouth may declare Your praise” which is the opening meditation before the formal beginning of the Amidah, the Standing Prayer, known simply as Prayer / Tefillah in Judaism’s oldest surviving discussions of liturgy.

Still, it feels like getting ahead of myself to speak about that beautiful line of poetry. The first fore prayer I say in the morning is a command to my soul from Psalm 104:

Bless, my soul, HaShem. HaShem, my God, You are very great; clothed in majesty and splendor, wrapped in a robe of light; spreading out the heavens like a tent. [Based on Rabbi Jonathan Sacks‘ translation in the Koren siddur.] Barchi nafshi, et HaShem, HaShem Elokai, Gadalta Me’od, Hod V’Hadar Lavashta; Oteh Ohr Kashalmah, Noteh Shamayim Kariyah.

Or as Rabbi Mordecai Finley translates it:

My soul, Bless HaShem! HaShem, my God — very great; clothed in majesty and splendor; wrapped in light like a robe; spreading out reality like a map.

I cherish beginning my davvenen with this line of poetry. It is the most beautiful description of The Cause of Being that I have: the Essence of the Universe that is wrapped in light. Try to sink into the idea that reality is unfolding like a map and you may never read another word of prayer.

These are the words I utter before I prayer; specifically, before I say the blessing for my tallit and wrap myself in it, imagining that I am wrapping myself in light — as I wrap myself in the light of the tradition, the light of holiness, the light of goodness. I also try to remember that I cannot see all of reality. That whatever I am upset about or anxious about or enjoying is just a fraction of the reality that exists in the world.

And yet, I continually fail at these meditations because I fail at the most basic aspect of the life I yearn for: consistent, daily prayer.

I looked into a lot of aspects of last week’s Torah portion in preparing to speak about it at Temple Beth Israel of Highland Park. Ironically, I failed to mention anything about fore prayer during my d’var Torah.

There is so much to say as we embark on that seven week journey toward the High Holy Days. What is sovereign in your life? What do you revere? How do you show your reverence on a daily basis?

They say that the Haftorah portions for this period reflect the ascent to the holiest days of our calendar, rather than being related to our Torah portions. And yet, I find them to be intimately related. I cried out to HaShem and She answered: “Comfort, oh Comfort.” Nachamu, nachamu – the words from Isaiah that begin the prophetic portion are a clear response to the anguish we feel. Anxiety for failing to meet our own expectations of ourselves. Shame that, as Rabbi Menachem Mendel of Kotzk said, we put our ego between HaShem and ourselves. Embarrassment that we still worship idols; we covet physical things and focus our energies on material reality, ignoring the palaces in time calling to our souls.

It is all okay. Ain od. There is nothing else. The Divine is everywhere, experiencing everything alongside us. And She will suckle us through the narrow places and we will arrive into ourselves when we are ready to take our place and heed the call to our own depths.

I meditated on the Sapphire Vision and terrified myself

Chanting this story at
DLTI-10 Week 3

At the Davennen Leadership Training Institute, we were asked to work on our leyning skills. That is, we were asked to step into the ability to decode tropes, the musical system used to chant the Torah. And for those of us who know the trope system, we were given intermediate or advanced options. We could work in partnership to chant conversations as a dialog in English or individually take a section of Torah and provide our own translation.

This project terrified me before I ever opened a Chumash. I am somewhat comfortable preparing a talk on the Torah, from the comfort of my own home with my teachers surrounding me. I take out five or six commentaries and meditate my way into a conversation on a portion.

My process for creating this English story based on the Torah

So, being at Isabella Freedman Retreat Center, with a handful of unfamiliar commentaries, was quite disorienting. Further, I chose a section that I thought would allow me to enter into the deep mystery of knowing HaShem, Exodus 24.1-11; the section of the parsha Mishpatim known as the Sapphire Vision; an entry point into Jewish mysticism.

First, I went through the available commentaries and wrote a straight-forward English version of the text. I stared at those words, devoid of any women, full of ancient blood rituals, and I felt a chasm open up between me and HaShem. I asked our holy teacher, Hazzan Jack Kessler, how much space I had for interpretation. He encouraged me to explore the story however I wanted to, and pointed out how strange the ending of the passage is. (You see HaShem’s throne and your response is to eat and drink?)

I practiced chanting the Torah portion in Hebrew, to get myself more deeply connected to the holy sparks within it. I also assumed that it makes the most sense to follow the trope cadence already assigned when developing an English translation. So, initially, I was going to chant my English story as simply as Mishpatim describes The Sapphire Vision. And then, on the first day of English leyning, my holy sisters and brothers pulled out rare tropes to adorn their English. And I thought, well, if any portion deserves adornment, surely it is a vision of the Divine. Plus, all that fancy note work might keep people from booing me out of the room for the heresy of my story. (Because there was still a large portion of me terrified of sharing my story publicly, in front of an open Torah.)

In terror, I stepped forward.

This is the hardest thing I did last week. It cracked open a part of me that I didn’t know was there. I am so deeply grateful to Reb Marcia Prager and Hazzan Jack Kessler, along with our other holy teachers, for creating the space that allowed me to greet the Shechinah with open arms.

Another Sapphire Vision

Click here for an audio version of this story.

Yah spoke to Moshe saying: travel up to Miriam and the kohanot. And Moshe went up; him, and Aaron, and the other males thirsting for Divine flow. Miriam showed Moshe the way in.

And Moshe returned and told the people all that he heard.

And Yisrael replied: all that Yah said, we shall do.

Moshe wrote instructions for living a life of goodness.

In gratitude, he built an altar to HaShem and placed twelve pillars around it. He prayed that the Holy One and Her people would fill the world with glory and love.

Then, Moshe took the book of the covenant and read into the ears of the people.

They said: All that Yah has commanded we will do.

Moshe blessed the people and thanked them for trusting him.

Moshe returned to the Mountain of Flow; he and all the men eager to meet the Source. Miriam greeted them; the Kohanot taught the spiral dance.

Lo, they glimpsed the Divine.

BRILLIANT, DEEP BLUE SAPPHIRE.

Blue / Black, Smooth as Ice, Firm as Mountains, Soft as Babies.

The men were overwhelmed. All of the men were overwhelmed by the brilliance. All of the men except Moshe.

Miriam held Moshe’s hand and he felt the pure love and emptying of childbirth.

They returned to the Kehillah Kedushah, the holy community, emanating the pure light of the Divine.

The men were overjoyed to be let in. And the men prepared a great feast. And all of them sat together. And they ate and they drank.

Why Jews find anti-Zionism to be anti-Jewish

I wrote this in an attempt to explain why the majority of Jews find anti-Zionism to be anti-Jewish. I fully recognize not all Jews agree with this position, but it is the position that people find so difficult to understand. Perhaps after reading this, you will still disagree with us. Before responding, I hope you will take the time to read my entire comment.

First, if conversations are going to continue, words need to be defined. Zionism is the desire of Jews for self-determination. In 2019, Zionism describes the right of Jews to self-determination in the land of Israel.

Second, the reason Zionist Jews find anti-Zionism anti-Jewish is because our connection to the land is as inherent to our identity as the term Judaism. We are Israelites. Traditionally, “Israel” in our prayers refers to us as a collective people. It is deeply offensive to be described as colonialists — for centuries, archaeologists have been discovering how we lived in our land before the multiple times we have been expelled.

Third, there is a difference between criticizing Israel and being an anti-Zionist. An anti-Zionist denies that right of the Jewish state to exist. That ridiculous opinion piece claiming that no state has the right to exist is another piece of rhetorical deflection. At the same time that Arab states continue to keep Palestinians in refugee camps for generations, they were expelling their Jewish citizens. This is not a “gotcha” question. It is a question that clears the way for understanding whether there is any room for discussion. North American Indigenous nations exist within the reality of accepting that the USA exists. And the constant analogies to indigenous people is also offensive.

Here’s the thing: I try hard not to use the term “anti-Semitic.” I do not deny that as a Jew, I am a Semite.* But I also understand the term was created because people found it too difficult to broach the words “Jew” and “Jewish.” And yes, it is anti-Jewish to deny our right to self-determination. I get that not all Jews feel the need / want to be associated with Israel. The majority of us, and more importantly the majority of us who live there, want Israel to exist. That’s what self-determination means. It means that collectively, we made a decision and our collective decision was recognized by the United Nations. The existence of the state of Israel is not racist. The actions of the Israeli government, like the actions of any government, can be critiqued. But when you claim our state, and only our state, does not deserve to exist, then you are anti-Jewish. That is why anti-Zionism is such an offensive term and ideology to Jews.

*And let’s go back to the understanding that Jews are Semites. We’ve been kicked off our ancestral land generation after generation, century after century. We were murdered in Europe and Israel during the Crusades. Islamic rulers pushed us out. And then we came back. We are not colonizers. We are indigenous people returning to our land. Should Israelis find a peaceful way to co-exist with Palestinians? Absolutely! Does that mean accepting the “right of return” for everyone claiming Palestinian heritage? No. Modern states divide territory between peoples who have competing, legitimate desire to the land.

This is the world view that progressive Jewish sisters are asking you to understand.

It is also worth questioning: why is this the one and only foreign policy issue that “must be part of the collective platform of the movement for women’s rights.” There are more than two sides to any geopolitical dispute. And women’s rights in the United States are not dependent on the successful negotiation of peace between Palestinians and Israelis. Just as our rights are not dependent on Rohingya women in Burma being able to live freely, or any religious people in China (Muslim, Jewish, Christian), or Tibetans. Fundamentally, there is a distinction between gathering for women’s equality and advocating on foreign policy. And it is worth questioning why it is so easy to call out, and indeed demonize, Jews in the “pursuit of peace.”